IMHE OpenIR 中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所 :80 2020-01-08T08:05:12Z 2020-01-08T08:05:12Z Distribution Features of Landslides in Three Gorges Area and the Contribution of Basic Factors Qiao Jianping Wang Meng :80/handle/131551/33457 2020-01-02T22:05:10Z 2020-01-02T08:30:19Z 题名: Distribution Features of Landslides in Three Gorges Area and the Contribution of Basic Factors 作者: Qiao Jianping; Wang Meng 编者: Wang F; Li T 摘要: The research area in this chapter is the Three Gorges area from Yunyang to Wushan county, which is about 100?km long and 40?km wide and covers some 4,000?km2 in total. Forty percent of landslides in the Three Gorges area happened in this region, and 205 landslides have been recorded with relatively complete data. 2020-01-02T08:30:19Z Entropy-Based Hazard Degree Assessment for Typical Landslides in the Three Gorges Area, China Yang Zongji Qiao Jianping :80/handle/131551/33458 2020-01-02T22:05:09Z 2020-01-02T08:30:19Z 题名: Entropy-Based Hazard Degree Assessment for Typical Landslides in the Three Gorges Area, China 作者: Yang Zongji; Qiao Jianping 编者: Wang F; Li T 摘要: With the development and expansion of landslide research, quantitatively conducting typical landslide hazard assessment is demonstrated to be an effective method in assessing landslide hazard. This study sets up an index system for landslide hazard assessment by means of intensity factors and probability factors of landslide occurrence. Based on the information entropy method, subjective weight was calculated for 21 typical landslides in Wushan County, located in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, and a qualitative typical landslide hazard degree assessment model was established. This model was then used in evaluating the hazard degree of the landslides in Wushan County, and the results were contrasted and confirmed through field investigation. The accuracy rate of the investigation is as high as 90.4%. As a result, this model demonstrates a useful application of a new methodology and provides a basis for future warning and hazard evaluations of a typical landslide. 2020-01-02T08:30:19Z A MODIFIED ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION TO AGRO-ECONOMIC ECOSYSTEM BEFORE AND AFTER GRAIN FOR GREEN POLICY IN THE WATERSHED SCALE ON THE LOESS PLATEAU IN CHINA Zhou Ping Zhuang Wenhua Liu Guo-Bin Wen Anbang He Xiubin Wang Bing :80/handle/131551/33456 2020-01-02T22:05:10Z 2020-01-02T08:30:18Z 题名: A MODIFIED ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION TO AGRO-ECONOMIC ECOSYSTEM BEFORE AND AFTER GRAIN FOR GREEN POLICY IN THE WATERSHED SCALE ON THE LOESS PLATEAU IN CHINA 作者: Zhou Ping; Zhuang Wenhua; Liu Guo-Bin; Wen Anbang; He Xiubin; Wang Bing 编者: Vaughn JC 摘要: Based on the theory of emergy analysis and the introduced concept of emery density, a modified ecological footprint model was established to evaluate the environmental status of sustainability in the given region. The main process was to use this model to transform all kinds of energy flows of the eco-economic systems into the corresponding biological productive units and then combine with emergy density to calculate ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity. With the agricultural eco-economic system of zhifanggou watershed in hilly-gullied loess region as an example, we applied the modified and traditional model of ecological footprint to analysis the changes of this region before and after grain for green policy. By using the modified model, we could find that the carrying capacity per capita was 0.256hm(2)/cap and 0.201hm(2)/cap separately before and after grain for green policy, while the ecological footprint per capita was 0.183 hm(2)/cap and 0.118hm(2)/cap separately. All results showed an ecological surplus. And the index of sustainability was 0.528 and it belonged to the slight sustainability condition before this policy, but after this policy, the index of sustainability was 0.630 and it belonged to the middle sustainability condition. Meanwhile, the results of ecological footprint per capita were 0.733hm(2)/cap and 0.650hm(2)/cap separately. By using the traditional model, the ecological carrying capacities were 1.559hm(2)/cap and 1.781hm(2)/cap separately before and after grain for green policy. And they all showed ecological surplus and belonged to the middle sustainability condition. From all the above, the results all showed that the calculation results of the modified ecological footprint model were more realistic situations of zhifanggou watershed and the conclusion was more reasonable than the traditional one. 2020-01-02T08:30:18Z Late Cenozoic Climate Change in MonsoonArid Asia and Global Changes An Zhisheng Sun Youbin Chang Hong Zhang Peizhen Liu Xiaodong Cai Yanjun Jin Zhangdong Qiang Xiaoke Zhou Weijian Li Li Shi Zhengguo Tan Liangcheng Li Xiaoqiang Zhang Xinbao Jin Zhao :80/handle/131551/33455 2020-01-02T22:05:12Z 2020-01-02T08:30:15Z 题名: Late Cenozoic Climate Change in MonsoonArid Asia and Global Changes 作者: An Zhisheng; Sun Youbin; Chang Hong; Zhang Peizhen; Liu Xiaodong; Cai Yanjun; Jin Zhangdong; Qiang Xiaoke; Zhou Weijian; Li Li; Shi Zhengguo; Tan Liangcheng; Li Xiaoqiang; Zhang Xinbao; Jin Zhao 编者: An Z 摘要: Based on the geological and biological findings, and climate model simulations, current understanding of the Asian monsoon-arid environment has been synthesized here. This chapter addresses the evolution of the Asian monsoon-arid environment and how it is related to the growth of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), and global environmental change since the Cenozoic. Asian monsoon appearance may begin in the Eocene. The basic structure of the monsoon-arid environment was established by late Oligocene, and the modern pattern of the monsoon-arid environment has developed since the late Pliocene. Conceptual models for Asian monsoon-arid environmental change mechanisms at various time scales are proposed here. The occurrence of great Northern hemisphere glaciation has been discussed. Differentiation of the natural background and anthropogenic signals is examined. Policies and countermeasures for sustainable development on the Loess Plateau and arid areas are proposed for future reference. 2020-01-02T08:30:15Z A Web-Based GIS for Crime Mapping and Decision Support Zhou Guiyun Lin Jiayuan Ma Xiujun :80/handle/131551/33454 2020-01-02T22:05:12Z 2020-01-02T08:30:15Z 题名: A Web-Based GIS for Crime Mapping and Decision Support 作者: Zhou Guiyun; Lin Jiayuan; Ma Xiujun 编者: Elmes GA; Roedl G; Conley J 摘要: Timely mapping of crime locations and accurate detection of spatial concentrations of crime help to identify where crimes concentrate in space and time and thus provide important information for crime reduction efforts of law enforcement. The main objective of this chapter is to design and implement a Web-based GIS for crime mapping and decision support. The prototype system allows users to detect and view crime hotspots in a Web environment in the form of thematic layers overlaid on background data. Four hotspot mapping techniques, i.e., choropleth mapping, grid mapping, spatial ellipse mapping, and kernel density mapping, are implemented. The system can be used for mapping crime hotspots, predicting the locations of future crime, and optimizing crime reduction efforts. It is a rich Internet application and is much more efficient than script-based clients in hotspot detection, map manipulation, and rendering. It is entirely based on open-source software, making it affordable for many small-and medium-sized police departments in developing countries. Results from the prototype development demonstrate that for a Web-based crime mapping and decision support system, rich Internet application technology in combination with open-source software is an effective solution in terms of both system performance and financial cost. 2020-01-02T08:30:15Z Loess Plateau Zheng Fenli Xu Ximeng He Xiubin :80/handle/131551/33453 2020-01-02T08:30:14Z 2020-01-02T08:30:14Z 题名: Loess Plateau 作者: Zheng Fenli; Xu Ximeng; He Xiubin 编者: Lal R 摘要: The Loess Plateau area, the most widely distributed region of the Loess on the earth, is mostly located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, covering 8 latitudes (33-41 degrees N) and 14 longitudes (100-114 degrees E) with an area of 624,000 km(2). Current landform of the Loess Plateau formed due to neotectonism, rising-falling movement, fault activities on a large scale, and Loess deposition process. The Loess Plateau area located at a transitional zone from monsoon climate of the eastern China to semiarid and arid climate in the northwestern China, the Loess Plateau experiences a prominent continental monsoon climate. The Loess Plateau can be bioclimatically divided into forest, forest steppe, and steppe zones from the southeast to the northwest, while soil is both determined by climate condition and human activities. As a consequence of special landform and human activities, the Loess Plateau is one of the most severely eroded areas in the world. However, a set of soil and water conservation projects has been implemented on the Loess Plateau and obtains great ecological and economic benefits. 2020-01-02T08:30:14Z Investigation and Analysis of Geohazards Induced by the 2015 Nepal Earthquake Based on Remote Sensing Method Zhao Wei Li Ainong Zhang Zhengjian Lei Guangbin Bian Jinhu Deng Wei Khanal Narendra Raj :80/handle/131551/33452 2020-01-02T22:05:15Z 2020-01-02T08:30:13Z 题名: Investigation and Analysis of Geohazards Induced by the 2015 Nepal Earthquake Based on Remote Sensing Method 作者: Zhao Wei; Li Ainong; Zhang Zhengjian; Lei Guangbin; Bian Jinhu; Deng Wei; Khanal Narendra Raj 编者: Li A; Deng W; Zhao W 摘要: The devastating earthquake that occurred in Nepal on April 25, 2015, caused widespread damage and ravaged rural communities and economy. It triggered numerous geohazards in the steep mountains and hills throughout the impact zone, including catastrophic landslides in the Langtang Valley. Potentially, these landslides can have devastating effects on humans, destroy infrastructure, obstruct river flows and cause outburst floods. In order to understand the effects of the earthquake-induced geohazards and their risk assessment, number of scientists have carried out numerous geohazard investigations using remote sensing approach. This paper presents evaluation results based on the study of earthquake-related geohazards. Later, three main geohazards related to the Langtang avalanche, landslide dam and glacial lake monitoring are discussed in detail. Finally, the zones around the two China-Nepal roads are selected as the study areas. A change detection method is applied to identify the geohazards occurred in these areas and to understand their spatial distribution pattern. The study offers awareness about the earthquake-induced geohazards in Nepal. Landslide is identified as the major geohazard induced by earthquake, and its regional impact will continue in near future. 2020-01-02T08:30:13Z Landslides Inventory and Trans-boundary Risk Management in Koshi River Basin, Himalaya Zhang Jianqiang Regmi Amar Deep Liu Rongkun Khanal Narendra Raj Schenato Luca Gurung Deo Raj Wahid Shahriar :80/handle/131551/33451 2020-01-02T22:05:18Z 2020-01-02T08:30:13Z 题名: Landslides Inventory and Trans-boundary Risk Management in Koshi River Basin, Himalaya 作者: Zhang Jianqiang; Regmi Amar Deep; Liu Rongkun; Khanal Narendra Raj; Schenato Luca; Gurung Deo Raj; Wahid Shahriar 编者: Li A; Deng W; Zhao W 摘要: Koshi River basin, which is a trans-boundary basin shared by China, Nepal and India, covers an area of about 87,500 km(2). This study investigated the landslide locations in this basin by means of interpreting remote sensing images as well as field work. We could map 5653 landslides that are located within China and Nepal. Landslide caused different kinds of disasters including damage to public and private properties. The most common hazard pattern is supplying sources to debris flow, accounting for 48.38% of the number of landslides. The following patterns are soil erosion and blocking river, accounting for 25.18 and 18.98%, respectively. Cascading hazards related to landslides are very common in Koshi River basin. Three main cascading events were found there: landslide-dammed lake-outburst flood, GLOF-landslide and landslide-debris flow. These features make the disasters extend temporally and spatially. A framework for risk management in trans-boundary river basin was proposed to develop cooperation at academic and administrative levels among the involved countries. 2020-01-02T08:30:13Z Water Hazards in the Trans-boundary Kosi River Basin Chen Ningsheng Hu Guisheng Deng Wei Khanal Narendra Raj Zhu Yunhua Han David :80/handle/131551/33450 2020-01-02T22:05:23Z 2020-01-02T08:30:12Z 题名: Water Hazards in the Trans-boundary Kosi River Basin 作者: Chen Ningsheng; Hu Guisheng; Deng Wei; Khanal Narendra Raj; Zhu Yunhua; Han David 编者: Li A; Deng W; Zhao W 摘要: The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges that passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71,500 km(2), the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water-related hazards including glacier lake outburst, debris flow, landslide, flood, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socioeconomics. Glacier lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region, and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, decline of ecosystems and climate changes could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is a huge challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps. 2020-01-02T08:30:12Z Agricultural Land Use Intensity and Determinants in Different Agroecological Regions in Central Nepal Himalaya Khatiwada Shanta Paudel Zhang Jifei Su Yi Paudel Bikash Deng Wei :80/handle/131551/33448 2020-01-02T22:05:32Z 2020-01-02T08:30:11Z 题名: Agricultural Land Use Intensity and Determinants in Different Agroecological Regions in Central Nepal Himalaya 作者: Khatiwada Shanta Paudel; Zhang Jifei; Su Yi; Paudel Bikash; Deng Wei 编者: Li A; Deng W; Zhao W 摘要: Intensification of agricultural land use is the only viable option to achieve food security in countries possessing very limited arable lands such as Nepal. Since sustainable intensification has been policy targets in recent years, understanding agricultural land use intensity and its determinants would provide important support to policy formation toward sustainable agricultural development. However, the status and determinants of agricultural land use intensity in Nepal have been seldom investigated. Based on questionnaire surveys of 453 households, 12 key informant surveys and three focus group discussions, this study assesses cropping frequency, as an indicator of agricultural land use intensity (ALUI), in three agroecological regions in central Nepal. The results show that average cropping frequency in Khet land is 2.9, 2.6 and 1.6 in low-land Terai, mid-hill and high-hill area, respectively, while in Bari land is 2.4, 2.3 and 2.1, respectively. In addition, Terai region has significantly higher ALUI in both Khet and Bari lands than mid-and high-hill areas. Among a total of 18 investigated impacting factors, age and education of household heads, land quality and use of improved seed positively influence ALUI in Khet land, while distances from home to land and vehicle passable roads have negative effects. For the Bari lands, land quality, irrigation facility, tractor availability and improved seeds are positively associated with ALUI, but education of household heads, distances from home to land, home to market center and home to vehicle passable road are negatively influencing factors. This study provides an empirical evidence that agricultural modernization and access to infrastructural facilities are the major pathways to promote agriculture intensification in mid and high hills. Intensification of agricultural land use might be a preferable option to reduce poverty and food shortage in Nepal; however, there is a need of effective land management and agricultural policy, along with incentive programs to attract young generations engage in agriculture. More than that, education, training and awareness programs about the importance of maintaining soil fertility under intensified farming are greatly needed in order to achieve a sustainable agricultural in Nepal. 2020-01-02T08:30:11Z